A cavus foot has a high arch. The cavus can range from being slightly high to severely deformed, causing a patient to walk on the outside of the foot. Surgery sometimes is needed to realign the foot.
While the cause of a high-arched foot it often unknown, a cavus could be caused by nerve disease, clubfoot, or injury. Treatment ranges from changes in shoes to surgeries, depending on the amount of deformity and related problems.
The main goals of cavus foot surgery are to reduce pain, improve function, and prevent further damage or injuries.
The metatarsal bones are the long bones in the middle of the foot. Each metatarsal bone has a base, a shaft, a neck, and a head. The fifth metatarsal is the last bone at the outside of the foot, and most breaks of the fifth metatarsal occur at the base.
The majority of fifth metatarsal fractures are treated without surgery. However, certain situations may require surgical treatment. Surgery can be performed to help the bone heal in a correct position and return the patient to full function. Surgery may reduce the time needed for immobilization and improve the chance of healing compared to non-surgical treatment.
Adult flatfoot is a condition that is characterized by the collapse of the arch of the foot. Surgery will improve alignment of the foot and restore more normal pressure during standing and walking. A combination of procedures often is needed to repair the ligaments and tendons that support the arch. Bone cuts are made to help restore the arch. Proper correction of flatfoot deformity can help reduce pain and improve walking ability.
Flexor Digitorum Longus (FDL) Tendon Transfer to Posterior Tibial Tendon
The flexor digitorum longus (FDL) is one of the tendons responsible for bending the toes down to the floor. The goals of a FDL tendon transfer surgery are to relieve pain and to help restore the arch in patients with painful fallen arches. A fallen arch occurs when the foot loses its support and flattens out, generally due to weakening of tendons and ligaments in the foot.
Foot drop occurs when the muscles and tendons that flex the foot up are no longer working. Commonly, it is the result of a nerve injury, stroke, or nerve disease (neuropathy). It also can occur after an injury to a muscle or tendon. If a person is unable to flex the foot up when walking, the foot or toes can drag on the ground. This can make walking difficult and lead to frequent falls.
There are 26 bones in the foot, all of which can be fractured. There are different types of fractures. Sometimes a bone breaks but stays in place (non-displaced). Sometimes a bone breaks into two pieces that move apart from one another (displaced). Other types of fractures include a bone that is broken in multiple places (comminuted) and a bone that breaks through the skin after fracturing (open fracture).
If you injure your foot, your orthopaedic foot and ankle specialist will take X-rays to see if you have a fracture. X-rays will identify most fractures but some smaller and more subtle fractures may require CT or MRI scans to be seen. Not all fractures require surgery, and your foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeon will help determine how your fracture should be treated.
If you need surgery for your foot fracture, the goals are to restore the fractured bone to its correct position, stabilize the bone in this position, encourage healing, restore function and reduce the risk of future problems such as persistent pain, loss of motion, and arthritis.
The Lapidus procedure is a surgical procedure used to treat a bunion deformity, also known as hallux valgus. It involves fusing the joint between the first metatarsal and one of the small bones in your midfoot, the medial cuneiform. Surgery includes removing the cartilage surfaces from both bones, correcting the angular deformity, then placing hardware (screws and often a small plate) to allow the two bones to grow together, or fuse. This surgery often is done to correct a bunion deformity with a very large angle, or when there is increased mobility through the tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint. When the TMT joint has too much looseness or movement, the condition is known as hypermobility or instability. When this joint becomes hypermobile, the first metatarsal moves too far in one direction and the big toe compensates by moving too much in the other direction. When this happens, a bunion can develop.
The goal of the Lapidus procedure is to surgically treat hallux valgus that is caused by first TMT joint hypermobility. When the first TMT joint is fused, the first metatarsal will not move abnormally. This will allow the first toe to stay straight and decrease the risk of the bunion coming back.
Each foot has five metatarsals. These are the long bones of the foot. They connect the toes to the rest of the foot. They also make the ball of the foot. The lesser metatarsals are the bones that connect to the second through fifth toes (not the first, or big toe).
An osteotomy is a cut made in the bone. It is similar to breaking the bone but in a very controlled manner. A lesser metatarsal shortening osteotomy changes the pressure distribution under the ball of the foot, relieving pain. It also can be used to put a chronically dislocated toe back in position.
The Lisfranc ligament runs between two bones in the middle of the foot called the medial cuneiform and the second metatarsal. The place where these two bones meet is called the Lisfranc joint. The name comes from French surgeon Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847), who was the first physician to describe injuries to this ligament.
Tearing of the Lisfranc ligament and other ligaments around the Lisfranc joint can lead to instability and disruption of the joints in the middle of the foot. The goal of surgery is to restore normal alignment to the foot. Whether the injury results in a subtle misalignment of the bones or a more obvious dislocation of joints, the surgery is intended to put the bones back into their original position.
The midfoot is the middle of the foot. It refers to the bones and joints that make up the arch and connect the forefoot (front of the foot including the bones of the toes) to the hindfoot (back of the foot including the ankle bone and the heel bone).
Midfoot fusion is a procedure in which the different bones that make up the arch of the foot are fused together. Fusion eliminates the normal motion that occurs between two bones. Since there is very little movement in the small joints of the midfoot, the function of the foot can be preserved.